Apache Storm Component Guide
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Trident Aggregations

In addition to functions and filters, Trident defines a number of aggregator interfaces that allow topologies to combine tuples.

There are three types of Trident aggregators:

  • CombinerAggregator

  • ReducerAggregator

  • Aggregator

As with functions and filters, Trident aggregations are applied to streams via methods in the Stream class, namely aggregate(), partitionAggregate(), and persistentAggregate().


The CombinerAggregator interface is used to combine a set of tuples into a single field. In the word count example the Count class is an example of a CombinerAggregator that summed field values across a partition. The CombinerAggregator interface is as follows:

public interface CombinerAggregator<T> extends Serializable {
    T init(TridentTuple tuple);
    T combine(T val1, T val2);
    T zero();

When executing Aggregator, Storm calls init() for each tuple, and calls combine() repeatedly to process each tuple in the partition.

When complete, the last value returned by combine() is emitted. If the partition is empty, the value of zero() will be emitted.


The ReducerAggregator interface has the following interface definition:

public interface ReducerAggregator<T> extends Serializable {
    T init();
    T reduce(T curr, TridentTuple tuple);

When applying a ReducerAggregator to a partition, Storm first calls the init() method to obtain an initial value. It then calls the reduce() method repeatedly, to process each tuple in the partition. The first argument to the reduce() method is the current cumulative aggregation, which the method returns after applying the tuple to the aggregation. When all tuples in the partition have been processed, Storm emits the last value returned by reduce().


The Aggregator interface represents the most general form of aggregation operations:

public interface Aggregator<T> extends Operation {
    T init(Object batchId, TridentCollector collector);
    void aggregate(T val, TridentTuple tuple, TridentCollector collector);
    void complete(T val, TridentCollector collector);

A key difference between Aggregator and other Trident aggregation interfaces is that an instance of TridentCollector is passed as a parameter to every method. This allows Aggregator implementations to emit tuples at any time during execution.

Storm executes Aggregator instances as follows:

  1. Storm calls the init() method, which returns an object T representing the initial state of the aggregation.

    T is also passed to the aggregate() and complete() methods.

  2. Storm calls the aggregate() method repeatedly, to process each tuple in the batch.

  3. Storm calls complete() with the final value of the aggregation.

The word count example uses the built-in Count class that implements the CombinerAggregator interface. The Count class could also be implemented as an Aggregator:

public class Count extends BaseAggregator<CountState> {
    static class CountState {
        long count = 0;

    public CountState init(Object batchId, TridentCollector collector) {
        return new CountState();

    public void aggregate(CountState state, TridentTuple tuple, TridentCollector collector) {

    public void complete(CountState state, TridentCollector collector) {
        collector.emit(new Values(state.count));